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About Jefferson County

Article Index

Transcribed by Billie McNamara from an original, undated document.  The celebration was apparently held June 10, 1954, based on statements in the program text.

Souvenir Program
Treaty of Dumplin Celebration
Kodak, Tennessee

Thursday, June 10th [1954], 2 P. M.

Sponsored Jointly by the
Jefferson County and Sevier County Chapters
Association for Preservation
of Tennessee Antiquities
Franklin Flag
TN Historical Commission Marker
State of Franklin Flag

The general design of the Tennessee and Franklin flags are similar - but the colors differ.

Meaning of the colors:

     Red for the Sunshine of Tennessee
     Blue for the Sky
     Green for our Mountains and Valleys

Transcriber's note:  There is no information in this document regarding the designer or date of this flag.

Invocation Rev. Thomas C. Christmas
Introduction of Speaker Dr. Harley Fite
Address Ex-Governor Jim McCord
Presentation of Plaque Dr. Dan M. Robinson
(President TN Historical Commission)
Acceptance Mr. Fred Atchley
Unveiling Mrs. Estelle Sevier Jarnigan Naff
Presentation of American Flag Sevierville American Legion Post
and State Commander
Salute to the Flag  
Raising Flag of State of Franklin Boy Scouts
Music by Massed Bands of Jefferson and Sevierville
High Schools
Mr. Jack King, Director
re-enacting the original signing of the Treaty of Dumplin
Music by Bands  
Serving of "dumplings" this being on Dumplin Creek, the only Creek of that name in the United States.
Mrs. Clarence A. Bales, Jefferson County Chapter
Mrs. Ben Brabson, Sevier County Chapter
Pageant Cast of Characters
Narrator Clarence A. Bales
John Sevier, Governor of Franklin Brice Wisecarver
Col. Alexander Outlaw J. Carl Lambdin
Judge Joshua Gist Omar Green
Gen. Daniel Kennedy George Zirkle
King of the Cherokees Ossie Crowe
Abraham, Chief of Chilhowee McKinley Ross
Ancoo, Chief of Chota Richard Crowe
The Bard, Valley Towns Warrior Cecil West
The Sturgeon of Tallassee John Crowe
Chas. Murphy, Linguist Sam W. Cate
(This original conference lasted three days and included many talks not here reported. In the original, there was an interpreter, Charles Murphy, for all the speeches, although many of the participants could understand both languages.)

History of the Treaty

The TREATY OF DUMPLIN is the most important historical event in the annals of the middle section of East Tennessee.  It is the one lasting accomplishment of the State of Franklin.  But for it, and the immediate settlement which followed in these five counties, East Tennessee would probably today still be a part of North Carolina.

Soon after Franklin was organized, in January 1785, the Legislature appointed Gov. John Sevier, Gen. Daniel Kennedy, and Col. Alexander Outlaw, Commissioners to treat with the Cherokee for more lands for homesteads.  By pre-arrangement the Commission met with the King of the Cherokee, and Abraham, Ancoo, and some thirty warriors and lesser chiefs at the "Fort" or log-house of Maj. Henry on Dumplin Creek, about 1 mile north of the French Broad river.

The "fort" stood on the spot being marked today.  Immediately beside it runs the famous Indian "war-path" leading from Penna., N. Y., Va., through Long Island (Kingsport) and Jefferson County to the Cherokee towns and to Georgia.  This once famous road was the route traveled by both whites and Indians - armies and traders, and homesteaders for two hundred years before the better known Wilderness Road to Kentucky was started.  It was the only road from the Wautauga settlements, either East or West.  By this Treaty of Dumplin all of Jefferson, Hamblen, Sevier, Knox and Blount counties were opened to homestead.

And within three years more than 1,000 white families had moved in and established homesteads - among them Adam Meek, Isaac Newman, John Cate, Sr. and Adam Peck in Jefferson; James White, Cosby, Armstrong and Wm. Bales in Knox; Sam Houston, Geo. Huffaker, Brabson, and Wear in Sevier; and Samuel Henry, A. Weaver, John Trimble and David Craig in Blount county.

June 10th, 1785, is more than two years before the Constitution of the United States was adopted, and more than 4 years before George Washington was inaugurated First President of the United States.

Both the State of North Carolina and Old Tassell -- chief of the North Carolina Cherokees -- refused at first to recognize this treaty.  Finally on August 3rd, 1786, Old Tassell and Hanging Maw did affirm it at the treaty of Coytoy (Coiatee) with Wm. Cocke, Alex. Outlaw, and others of a new Commission sent out by State of Franklin.

North Carolina continued to refuse to recognize either this treaty or the State of Franklin.  Confusion became so great that North Carolina, in 1789, ceded all this territory to the United States just organized and William Blount was sent by Washington as Territorial Governor.

Note that the Treaty does not run to Franklin, to North Carolina, or even to the United States but "to the state or states that may legally hereafter possess and enjoy the country aforesaid."

The Treaty

It is agreed by us, the warriors, chiefs and representatives of the Cherokee Nation that all the lands lying and being on the South side of the Holston and French Broad rivers, as far South as the ridge that divides the water of Little River from the waters of Tennessee may be peaceably inhabited and cultivated, resided on, enjoyed and inhabited by our elder brothers, the white people, from this time forward and always.

And we do agree on our part and in behalf of our Nation, that the white people shall never be by us, or any of our Nation, molested or interrupted, either in their persons or property, in no wise or in any manner or form whatsoever, in consequence of their settling or inhabiting of said territory, tract of land and country aforesaid, or any part of the same whatsoever.

John Sevier, for and on behalf of the white people, and for and in behalf of the State or Government, or the United States, as the case may hereafter be settled and concluded with respect to the jurisdiction and sovereignty over said land, tract, or territory, agrees that there shall be a liberal compensation made to the Cherokees for the land they have herein ceded and granted to the white people, and to the State or states that may hereafter legally possess and enjoy the country aforesaid, in good faith. This bargain and engagement now made and entered into between us, the white people and the Cherokees, may never be broken, disannulled or disavowed in consequence of any claim, right, or sovereignty over the soil hereby mentioned and described as aforesaid.

Done in open treaty, the 10th of June, 1785.

John Sevier
Alexander Outlaw The King of the Cherokees
Joseph Hardin Ancoo, chief of Chota
Lew Boyer Abraham, chief of Chilhowee
Joshua Gist The Bard, Valley Towns Warrior
Ebeneezer Alexander The Sturgeon of Tallassee
Also Present
Charles Murphy, Linguist, and some 30 other Cherokee Chiefs

State of Franklin

It is little known, but Franklin come within six votes of being the 14th state in the Union.  Daniel Webster opposed it because the area was so small.  He thought, Rhode Island and Delaware were enough small states.

After the close of the Revolutionary war, all of the states were broke.  North Carolina, which claimed all of Kentucky and Tennessee, was especially so.  It could barely pay its officials; it could not support an army to protect the over-hill settlements from Indian raids.  They were left without any kind of protection.

So John Sevier, and most of the leaders in this section, met at Greeneville in January, 1785, and organized a government for their own protection, adopted a Constitution and set of laws, and elected Sevier Governor for three years -- the only three-year governor in our history.

The original boundaries of Franklin were Bristol to about Limestone; the treaty of Franklin enlarged it westward to about Loudon -- about double the original area.

Sevier and all his cabinet were King's Mountain men, and most of them lived along the Nollachucky river. This was opposed bitterly by the Tipton faction.  North Carolina refused to recognize the new government -- but could do little about it.  Finally, in desperation, North Carolina ceded all this territory to the Federal government, and William Blount was sent out by Washington as Territorial Governor.  It was then known as the Territory South of the Ohio River and included all of what is now Tennessee.  On his appointment, the State of Franklin dissolved, and then in 1796 the State of Tennessee was organized.

Schedule of Salaries of Franklin Officials:

  • Governor -- 1,000 deer skins yearly
  • Chief Justice -- 500 deer skins
  • Secretary to Governor -- 500 raccoon skins
  • State Treasurer -- 450 otter skins
  • Clerk to Legislature -- 200 beaver skins
  • Members of Assembly -- 3 beaver skins each

Historians have never agreed upon the correct name for this state -- Frankland or Franklin. Frankland means "free land."  Frankland was the original proposal; but Ramsay, the historian, says Franklin was finally adopted by a small majority.  Extant copies of much correspondence of the time, show both names used about equally.  And the only copy of the Constitution and early laws known are of "Frankland."  You may take your choice.

Sevier County Chapter, APTA

Officers & Members

Mrs. Ben Brabson, Chairman Boyd's Creek
Mrs. Edd Emert, Secretary Sevierville
Mrs. E. W. Payne, Treasurer Sevierville

Anderson, Mrs. Robert Sevierville
Bowers, Miss Serena Sevierville
Brabson, Mr. Ben Boyd's Creek
Brabson, Mrs. Ben Boyd's Creek
Brabson, Miss Louise 2216 Island Home Blvd., Knoxville
Brabson, Miss Elizabeth 2216 Island Home Blvd., Knoxville
Brown, Mrs. Buford Sevierville
Bryan, Miss Mary Sue Kodak
Burchfield, Miss Josephine Sevierville
Burchfield, Mrs. Lon Sevierville
Cate, Mrs. S. W. G. Kodak
Catlett, W. H Kodak
Catlett, Mrs. Emma Ruth Elder Kodak
Christopher, Mrs. Clarence Sevierville
Conner, Miss Ada Gatlinburg
Conner, Mrs. J. Claude Gatlinburg
Cooper, Mrs. Fred Gatlinburg
Cox, Mrs. Roy Sevierville
Cox, Mrs. Bill Sevierville
Emert, Mrs. Edd Sevierville
Enloe, Mrs. Walter Sevierville
DeLozier, Mrs. A. L. Sevierville
DeLozier, Mrs. Fletcher Sevierville
Fox, Mrs. Lee Sevierville
Gilbert, Mrs. John Boyd's Creek
Grinstead, Mrs. B. M. Sevierville
Hailey, Mrs. R. B. Sevierville
Hickman, Mrs. Maurice Kodak
Harmon, Mrs. Thomas A. Kodak
Henry, Mrs. W. P. Kodak
Hughes, Mrs. Tom L. Sevierville
Ingle, Mrs. Ronald Sevierville
Isenberg, Mrs. Gean Sevierville
Johnson, Mrs. C. W. Sevierville
Johnson, Mrs. Warren Kodak
Kyker, Mrs. Clay Sevierville
Lawson, Mrs. Geo. W. Sevierville
Lexau, Miss Dorothy T. Sevierville
Marshall, Mrs. Amos Sevierville
Marshall, Mrs. Roy Sevierville
Morrell, Mrs. John Sevierville
Murphy, Mrs. Crawford Sevierville
McAfee, Mrs. Haven Sevierville
McCall, Mrs. R. A. Sevierville
McMahan, Mrs. Glen F. Sevierville
McMahan, Mrs. Wilbur Sevierville
Ogle, Mrs. Robert, Jr. Sevierville
Pack, Mrs. Charles Sevierville
Paine, Mrs. E. W. Sevierville
Paine, Mrs. Tom Sevierville
Rawlings, Mrs. L. P. Sevierville
Rector, Mrs. J. N. Sevierville
Roberts, Mrs. Carl Sevierville
Rogers, Miss Elizabeth Sevierville
Rogers, Mrs. E. B. Sevierville
Runyon, Miss Willie Mae Sevierville
Schmutzer, Mrs. Al Sevierville
Self, Mrs. C. C. Seymour, Rt. 2
Sharp, Miss Betty Sevierville
Sharp, Miss Mary Sevierville
Sharp, Mrs. Ellen M. Seymour
Sharp, J. A. Sevierville
Sharp, Mrs. J. A. Sevierville
Sharp, Mrs. Ray Sevierville
Smith, Mrs. Ray M. Kodak
Snyder, Mrs. J. F. Sevierville
Temple, Mrs. John Sevierville
Thomas, Mrs. Dewell Kodak
Tipton, Mrs. Robert Seymour
Townsend, Mrs. Buford Sevierville
Trainer, Miss Ethel P. Sevierville
Trotter, Mrs. Hugh E. Sevierville
Trotter, Miss Jessie Sevierville
Trundle, Mrs. Benton Boyd's Creek
Tunnison, Mrs. Alfred Sevierville
Van Arsdall, Mrs. June Sevierville
Wade, Mrs. Dwight Sevierville
Wade, Mrs. Reed Sevierville
Whaley, Mrs. Minyard Sevierville
Whittle, Mrs. Matt Gatlinburg
Weir, Miss Mary Sevierville, Rt. 4
Weir, Miss Amelia Jo Sevierville, Rt. 4
Weir, Miss Beth Sevierville, Rt. 4
Wynn, Mrs. T. M. Jr. Sevierville
Yett, Mrs. Claude Sevierville
Yett, Mrs. John Sevierville

Jefferson County Chapter, APTA

Officers & Members

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Mrs. Clarence A. Bales, Chairman Jefferson City
Mrs. Charles Oder, Vice Chairman Jefferson City
Miss Sarah Ruth Bryan, Secretary Dandridge
Mrs. R. G. McGoldrick, Treasurer New Market

Albright, Mrs. Nellie Nichols Jefferson City
Bales, Clarence A. Jefferson City
Bales, Mrs. Kate Newman Jefferson City
Bales, R. Carol Holston Hills, Knoxville
Bales, Mrs. Etta Wolfe Holston Hills, Knoxville
Bales, Roy R. New Market
Bales, Mrs. Lettie Henry New Market
Bassinger, Mrs. Grace Loy 704 Garden Ave., Fountain City
Bryan, Mrs. W. J. Jefferson City
Bell, Mrs. J. C. White Pine
Bell, Rolf Jefferson City
Bell, Mrs. Margaret Godwin Jefferson City
Bible, Mrs. John T. White Pine, Rt. 2
Bible, Mrs. Lloyd Dandridge
Biddle, Mrs. J. C. White Pine
Blanc, Mrs. Adrian Jefferson City
Bowen, Mrs. Leona Roberts Jefferson City
Breeden, Mrs. C. M. Talbott, Rt. 1
Brooks, Mrs. Charles J. Jefferson City
Brooks, Mrs. Floy Jefferson City
Bryan, Miss Sarah Ruth Dandridge
Brophy, Mrs. F. B. Jefferson City
Bush, Mrs. Fred C. Dandridge, Rt. 2
Bush, Mrs. Alger E. Dandridge, Rt. 2
Butler, Mrs. Birdie Maples Jefferson City
Campbell, Mrs. Virgie New Market
Cates, Mrs. John H. Jefferson City
Catlett, Mrs. W. H. Sr. Jefferson City
Catlett, Mrs. Will H. Jr. Jefferson City
Catlett, Mrs. Ben S. Jefferson City
Cawood, Mrs. Alvis G. Jefferson City
Chambers, Mrs. P. L. Dandridge
Couch, Mrs. Allie Peoples Jefferson City
Courtney, Mrs. Hugh Jefferson City
Chasteen, Mrs. J. Dandridge
Day, Mrs. J. Alvin Strawberry Plains
Dannehold, Mrs. Cyrl Jefferson City
Denton, Mrs. A. C. Jefferson City
Denton, Miss Ruth Jefferson City
Dyer, Mrs. W. E. Talbott
Dinsdale, Mrs. James Dandridge
Ellis, Mrs. J. Will Jefferson City
Farrar, Mrs. Roy Jefferson City
Fain, Miss Margaret Dandridge
Farris, Mrs. Wayne Jefferson City
Felknor, Mrs. Edward Dandridge
Fite, Dr. Harley Jefferson City
Fite, Mrs. Harley Jefferson City
Franklin, Mrs. Chester Jefferson City
Franklin, Miss Nell Jefferson City
Franklin, Mrs. Hood Jefferson City
Formwalt, Mrs. Bess Ross Jefferson City
Goddard, Mrs. Ruth Dandridge
Gardner, Mrs. Dan M. New Market